»  The Vanity of Human Wishes:
          The Tenth Satire of Juvenal, Imitated

 

The Vanity of Human Wishes:
The Tenth Satire of Juvenal, Imitated

by Samuel Johnson, 1709-1784

 

•  Background

Jeffrey Meyers in Samuel Johnson: The Struggle (2008):

Johnson had a temperamental affinity with Juvenal's gravity and moral sense, his remorseless pessimism and Roman stoicism. Vanity looks back on centuries of human struggle, on illusory hopes and inevitable fate, on sudden shifts in political power and the cruel indignity of death. It portrays disillusion, from the disgraced Cardinal Wolsey and the murdered Thomas Wentworth, to the young student burning for renown and the poor scholar crushed by "Toil, Envy, Want, the Garret and the Jail." It expresses Johnson's tragic sense of life, his belief that the pain and misery of human existence far outweigh its pleasure and happiness … Lord Byron, constitutionally opposed to Juvenal's gravity and Johnson's gloom, ironically commented, "the 10th Satire has always been my favorite, as I suppose indeed of every body's. It is the finest recipe for making one miserable with his life, & content to walk out of it, in any language."

Johnson's title originates in the dire motto of Ecclesiastes 1:2:  "Vanity of vanities; all is vanity," a word he defined in the Dictionary as "uncertainty,"  "fruitless desire"  and "falsehood." Believing with George Herbert that "A verse may finde him who a sermon flies," Johnson uses the poem to preach from a deeply pessimistic text. His title implies that certainty and truth can be found, despite the temptations of the world, only by adhering to a spiritual path and following God's will, a message John Bunyan had powerfully delivered in Pilgrim's Progress (1678). Instead of emphasizing the joy and consolation of Christian belief, and the hope of redemption it offers, Johnson distilled into the poem twenty years of bitterness, failure, and struggle for faith. His poem is not simply pessimistic, but strains against optimism, against the possibility that human life could actually get better.

Vanity was published on January 9, 1749, when Johnson was thirty-nine years old. From Boswell's Life:

He, I believe, composed it the preceding year. Mrs. Johnson, for the sake of country air, had lodgings at Hampstead, to which he resorted occasionally, and there the greatest part, if not the whole, of this Imitation was written. The fervent rapidity with which it was produced, is scarcely credible. I have heard him say, that he composed seventy lines of it in one day, without putting one of them upon paper till they were finished. I remember when I had once regretted to him that he had not given us more of Juvenal's Satires, he said he probably should give more, for he had them all in his head; by which I understood that he had the originals and correspondent allusions floating in his mind, which he could, when he pleased, embody and render permanent without much labour. Some of them, however, he observed were too gross for imitation.

Johnson's first literary success had been his 1738 poem London, a Poem, in Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal.

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This is one of three associated pages. Here I read Johnson's poem. On another page I read Juvenal's Tenth Satire in the original. On yet a third page I read John Dryden's translation of the Tenth.

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The Vanity of Human Wishes is 370 lines in heroic couplets. The thematic breaks are as follows.

   Theme   Lines
    1     The things we most desire — "Gain and Grandeur" — lead to our ruin. 1-48
    2     The poet appeals to the memory of Democritus as one who mocked folly and pretension. 49-72
    3     The hollowness of political power, with Cardinal Wolsey, George Villiers, Robert Harley, Thomas Wentworth, and Edward Hyde as examples. 73-134
    4     The dismal fate that awaits those who hunger after learning, illustrated by the examples of Thomas Lydiat, Galileo, and William Laud. 135-174
    5     Military glory is shown to be empty by the examples of Alexander, Marlborough, Charles XII of Sweden, Xerxes, and the Emperor Charles VII. 175-254
    6     Everyone prays for long life, but old age is a wretched state of sickness and narrow miserliness. 255-290
    7     The wretchedness of old age (cont.):  even if you keep your mental powers, you'll get to see your loved ones die; but most of us end decrepit anyway. 291-318
    8     Without virtue, beauty and sexual passion lead to destruction. 319-344
    9     Seek peace of mind in religious truth and trust to God's wisdom and goodness. 345-370


•  Notes on the first theme (lines 1-48)

"China to Peru" — Samuel Taylor Coleridge famously mocked this opening couplet, parsing it as:  "Let observation with extensive observation observe mankind extensively."

"Fate wings …" — every time we make a wish, Fate constructs an arrow to be shot at us.

"precipitates on" — "precipitate on:  to hasten without just preparation" — Johnson's Dictionary.

"Pest" — pestilence, plague

"Hind" — a lowly person; a domestic servant or a peasant.

"bonny Traytor in the Tow'r" — when Johnson was writing this poem in 1748, Bonny Prince Charlie's Jacobite rebellion of 1745 was fresh in people's minds — the greatest public event of the preceding few years. The "bonny Traytor" is a generic reference to any of the Scottish lords — there were at least four — imprisoned in the Tower of London for having supported the rebellion. Charlie himself got clean away to the Continent. He died in Rome in 1788.


•  Notes on the second theme (lines 49-72)

"Democritus" — the laughing philosopher, fl. 400 b.c.


•  Notes on the third theme (lines 73-134)

"Morning Worshiper" — An allusion to those who attended "levees," defined in Johnson's Dictionary as "The concourse of those who croud round a man of power in a morning." Those eager to ingratiate themselves with the powerful would be in the great man's bedchambers when he woke up.

"Palladium" — A symbol of protection, named after Pallas Athene (Latin Minerva), whose statue protected Troy.

"Remonstrance" — the Grand Remonstrance of 1641 was an assertion of ancient liberties and parliamentary privilege against the Continental-style despotism favored by King Charles I. It triggered the English Civil War of 1641-1651.

"Septennial Ale" — parliamentary elections in Johnson's time had to be held every seven years. (It is now five.) Voters were bribed with free ale.

"Wolsey" — Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (1475?-1530), Henry VIII's closest advisor, who eventually became too powerful and was charged with treason in 1530. He died of natural causes while on his way to answer the charges.

"the banks of Trent" — I don't know of any connection between Wolsey and the River Trent. The town of Burton Upon Trent was already famous for its breweries in Johnson's time, so Johnson may have been alluding to ale again. Or he may just have wanted a rhyme for "content." In a later edition of the poem he changed "richest Landlord" to "wisest justice."

"Villiers" — George Villiers (pronounced "Villers"), first Duke of Buckingham, a courtier and adventurer in the reigns of James I and Charles I. He was stabbed to death by a disgruntled army officer in 1628.

"Harley" — Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, an English statesman in the time of Queen Anne — which is to say, around the time of Johnson's birth and infancy. His later years were marred by ill health, which was not improved by a two-year spell of imprisonment in the Tower of London on charges cooked up by his political enemies.

"Wentworth" — Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, betrayed in 1641 by Charles I (who had sworn to protect him, hence "By Kings protected" in the following line), then executed, as one of the moves in the King-Parliament endgame that was followed by the Civil War.

"Hyde" — Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon. A statesman under King Charles II, he was impeached in 1667 and fled to exile in France. He was "to Kings ally'd" because his daughter Anne had married James, the king's brother — later King James II — in 1660.


•  Notes on the fourth theme (lines 135-174)

"Enthusiast" — "One of a hot imagination, or violent passion" — Johnson's Dictionary.

"Bodley's dome" — The Bodleian is the main library at Oxford University, named for Sir Thomas Bodley. "Dome" here just means a building of some kind, from Latin domus, a house or dwelling.

"Bacon's Mansion trembles o'er his Head" — The medieval philosopher Roger Bacon was said to live on the bridge over the Thames to the south of Oxford. Johnson adds a footnote: "There is a tradition, that the study of friar Bacon, built on an arch over the bridge, will fall, when a man greater than Bacon shall pass under it."

"Science" — "Any art or species of knowledge" — Johnson's Dictionary.

"Toil, Envy, Want, the Garret, and the Jail" — in 1755, after Johnson had published his Dictionary, he revised this line. He'd spent much of his time wrangling with his would-be patron, the Earl of Chesterfield, who offered almost no support; he therefore turned the line into a dig at Chesterfield. Boswell: "After experiencing the uneasiness which Lord Chesterfield's fallacious patronage made him feel, he dismissed the word garret from the sad group." The revised line read: "Toil, envy, want, the patron, and the jail."

"tardy Bust" — Johnson is probably thinking of the bust of the poet John Milton that was placed in Westminster Abbey in 1737, sixty-three years after Milton's death.

"Lydiat" — Thomas Lydiat, a great English scholar of the early Stuart period. He died during the Civil War, having been imprisoned twice by the Parliamentarians (he was a staunch Royalist). Johnson may have exaggerated his poverty, though.

"Galileo" — the astronomer, of course. His last years — he lived to almost 80 — were plagued by blindness and ill health, but not otherwise distressful. Once again, Johnson's exaggerating a bit.

"Laud" — William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury when the Civil War broke out. Executed by the Parliamentarians.


•  Notes on the fifth theme (lines 175-254)

"the rapid Greek" — Alexander the Great. "Rapid" looks a bit odd here, but certainly Alexander's conquests were speedy. Probably Johnson's deep Latinism is showing too: Latin rapere means "to seize by force."

"Britons … Danube … Rhine" — a reference to the Duke of Marlborough's campaigns in Bavaria and Austria during the early 1700s.

"Swedish Charles" — Charles XII of Sweden, who conquered Denmark, Saxony, and Poland, but was eventually defeated by the Russians under Peter the Great at the Battle of Poltava (1709).

"One capitulate, and One resign" — one of Charles XII's enemies, Frederick IV of Denmark, capitulated to him after a skirmish at Holstein-Gottorp in 1700. Another, Augustus II of Poland, was deposed in 1704 (though he later came back).

"Pultowa" — another spelling of Poltava, scene of Charles's great defeat.

"barren Strand … dubious Hand" — Charles fled to the Ottoman Empire after Poltava, but later returned to the north and tried unsuccessfully to recreate the Swedish Empire. He was killed on campaign in Norway. A rumor popular in Johnson's day was that one of his own aides killed him. Modern scholars think it was more likely a round from a Norwegian musket, or a fragment of Norwegian grape-shot.

"Persia's Tyrant" — Xerxes, whom Johnson is about to discuss.

"Bavaria's Lord" — Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII, whom Johnson deals with after Xerxes. He was Prince-Elector of Bavaria before becoming Emperor.

"Great Xerxes …" — These lines recount the story of Xerxes' campaign against Greece in 483-480 b.c. See the corresponding notes on Juvenal.

"The bold Bavarian …" — these lines refer to the War of the Austrian Succession, which was fought through the 1740s and so was fresh in everyone's mind. The point at issue was the succession of the Hapsburg Maria Theresa ("The Queen, the Beauty") to the throne of Austria, which was opposed by Bavaria, France, and Prussia. The war was inconclusive, Austria losing some territories, but Maria Theresa remaining on the throne. Johnson concentrates on the fate of Charles VII, which, while definitely short on glory, doesn't seem to have been as dire as the poet makes it sound.


•  Notes on the sixth theme (lines 255-290)

"dancing Mountains" — one of the legends about Orpheus was that his music was so sweet it caused the trees and the rocks to dance.

"Improve his heady Rage" — "improve" here means "increase."


•  Notes on the seventh theme (lines 291-318)

"Lydia's monarch … Solon" — Croesus — see here.

"From Marlb'rough's eyes" — the Duke of Marlborough suffered two strokes in 1716, and was paralyzed until his death in 1722.

"Swift … a Show" — Jonathan Swift suffered various ailments late in life, and was believed to have been insane; the story is told that his servants used to accept a fee to show the senile writer to the curious.


•  Notes on the eighth theme (lines 319-344)

"teeming" — pregnant

"Vane" — Anne Vane (1705-36) was a Lady-in-Waiting to Caroline, George II's queen. A great beauty, she became mistress of Frederick, George's eldest son. I don't know why Johnson uses her as an example of misfortune, though if popular reports of Frederick's character were correct, having to spend time with him was misfortune enough.

"Sedley" — Catherine Sedley was the mistress of James, Duke of York, who became King James II in 1685. Her father, Sir Charles Sedley resented the match so intensely that he supported the Glorious Revolution to overthrow James. It seems to be the father who's referred to here.


•  Notes on the ninth theme (lines 345-370)

"darkling" — in darkness.

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•  Play the reading

        Note:  The reading lasts 29 minutes 21 seconds.

This text will be replaced by the flash music player.

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•  Text of the poem.

The Vanity of Human Wishes:
        The Tenth Satire of Juvenal, Imitated
by Samuel Johnson
      [First theme, lines 1-48:  The things we most desire — "Gain and Grandeur" — lead to our ruin.]

Let Observation with extensive View,
Survey Mankind, from China to Peru;
Remark each anxious Toil, each eager Strife,
And watch the busy Scenes of crouded Life;
Then say how Hope and Fear, Desire and Hate,
O'erspread with Snares the clouded Maze of Fate,
Where wav'ring Man, betray'd by vent'rous Pride,
To tread the dreary Paths without a Guide;
As treach'rous Phantoms in the Mist delude,
Shuns fancied Ills, or chases airy Good.
How rarely Reason guides the stubborn Choice,
Rules the bold Hand, or prompts the suppliant Voice,
How Nations sink, by darling Schemes oppress'd,
When Vengeance listens to the Fool's Request.
Fate wings with ev'ry Wish th'afflictive Dart,
Each Gift of Nature, and each Grace of Art,
With fatal Heat impetuous Courage glows,
With fatal Sweetness Elocution flows,
Impeachment stops the Speaker's pow'rful Breath,
And restless Fire precipitates on Death.

    But scarce observ'd the knowing and the Bold,
Fall in the gen'ral Massacre of Gold;
Wide-wasting Pest! that rages unconfin'd,
And crouds with Crimes the Records of Mankind,
For Gold his Sword the Hireling Ruffian draws,
For Gold the hireling Judge distorts the Laws;
Wealth heap'd on Wealth, nor Truth nor Safety buys,
The Dangers gather as the Treasures rise.

    Let Hist'ry tell where rival Kings command,
And dubious Title shakes the madded Land,
When Statutes glean the Refuse of the Sword,
How much more safe the Vassal than the Lord,
Low sculks the Hind beneath the Rage of Pow'r,
And leaves the bonny Traytor in the Tow'r,
Untouch'd his Cottage, and his Slumbers sound,
Tho' Confiscation's Vulturs clang around.

    The needy Traveller, serene and gay,
Walks the wild Heath, and sings his Toil away.
Does Envy seize thee? crush th'upbraiding Joy,
Encrease his Riches and his Peace destroy,
New Fears in dire Vicissitude invade,
The rustling Brake alarms, and quiv'ring Shade,
Nor Light nor Darkness bring his Pain Relief,
One shews the Plunder, and one hides the Thief.

    Yet still the gen'ral Cry the Skies assails
And Gain and Grandeur load the tainted Gales;
Few know the toiling Statesman's Fear or Care,
Th'insidious Rival and the gaping Heir.
      [Second theme, lines 49-72:  The poet appeals to the memory of Democritus as one who mocked folly and pretension.]

    Once more, Democritus, arise on Earth,
With chearful Wisdom and instructive Mirth,
See motley Life in modern Trappings dress'd,
And feed with varied Fools th'eternal Jest:
Thou who couldst laugh where Want enchain'd Caprice,
Toil crush'd Conceit, and Man was of a Piece;
Where Wealth unlov'd without a Mourner dy'd;
And scarce a Sycophant was fed by Pride;
Where ne'er was known the Form of mock Debate,
Or seen a new-made Mayor's unwieldy State;
Where change of Fav'rites made no Change of Laws,
And Senates heard before they judg'd a Cause;
How wouldst thou shake at Britain's modish Tribe,
Dart the quick Taunt, and edge the piercing Gibe?
Attentive Truth and Nature to descry,
And pierce each Scene with Philosophic Eye.
To thee were solemn Toys or empty Shew,
The Robes of Pleasure and the Veils of Woe:
All aid the Farce, and all thy Mirth maintain,
Whose Joys are causeless, or whose Griefs are vain.

    Such was the Scorn that fill'd the Sage's Mind,
Renew'd at ev'ry Glance on Humankind;
How just that Scorn ere yet thy Voice declare,
Search every State, and canvass ev'ry Pray'r.
      [Third theme, lines 73-134:  The hollowness of political power, with Cardinal Wolsey, George Villiers, Robert Harley, Thomas Wentworth, and Edward Hyde as examples.]

    Unnumber'd Suppliants croud Preferment's Gate,
Athirst for Wealth, and burning to be great;
Delusive Fortune hears th'incessant Call,
They mount, they shine, evaporate, and fall.
On ev'ry Stage the Foes of Peace attend,
Hate dogs their Flight, and Insult mocks their End.
Love ends with Hope, the sinking Statesman's Door
Pours in the Morning Worshiper no more;
For growing Names the weekly Scribbler lies,
To growing Wealth the Dedicator flies,
From every Room descends the painted Face,
That hung the bright Palladium of the Place,
And smoak'd in Kitchens, or in Auctions sold,
To better Features yields the Frame of Gold;
For now no more we trace in ev'ry Line
Heroic Worth, Benevolence Divine:
The Form distorted justifies the Fall,
And Detestation rids th'indignant Wall.

    But will not Britain hear the last Appeal,
Sign her Foes Doom, or guard her Fav'rites Zeal;
Through Freedom's Sons no more Remonstrance rings,
Degrading Nobles and controuling Kings;
Our supple Tribes repress their Patriot Throats,
And ask no Questions but the Price of Votes;
With Weekly Libels and Septennial Ale,
Their Wish is full to riot and to rail.

    In full-blown Dignity, see Wolsey stand,
Law in his Voice, and Fortune in his Hand:
To him the Church, the Realm, their Pow'rs consign,
Thro' him the Rays of regal Bounty shine,
Turn'd by his Nod the Stream of Honour flows,
His Smile alone Security bestows:
Still to new Heights his restless Wishes tow'r,
Claim leads to Claim, and Pow'r advances Pow'r;
Till Conquest unresisted ceas'd to please,
And Rights submitted, left him none to seize.
At length his Sov'reign frowns — the Train of State
Mark the keen Glance, and watch the Sign to hate.
Where-e'er he turns he meets a Stranger's Eye,
His Suppliants scorn him, and his Followers fly;
Now drops at once the Pride of aweful State,
The golden Canopy, the glitt'ring Plate,
The regal Palace, the luxurious Board,
The liv'ried Army, and the menial Lord.
With Age, with Cares, with Maladies oppress'd,
He seeks the Refuge of Monastic Rest.
Grief aids Disease, remember'd Folly stings,
And his last Sighs reproach the Faith of Kings.

    Speak thou, whose Thoughts at humble Peace repine,
Shall Wolsey's Wealth,with Wolsey's End be thine?
Or liv'st thou now, with safer Pride content,
The richest Landlord on the banks of Trent?
For why did Wolsey by the Steps of Fate,
On weak Foundations raise th'enormous Weight?
Why but to sink beneath Misfortune's Blow,
With louder Ruin to the Gulphs below?

    What gave great Villiers to th'Assassin's Knife,
And fix'd Disease on Harley's closing Life?
What murder'd Wentworth, and what exil'd Hyde,
By Kings protected and to Kings ally'd?
What but their Wish indulg'd in Courts to shine,
And Pow'r too great to keep or to resign?
      [Fourth theme, lines 135-174:  The dismal fate that awaits those who hunger after learning, illustrated by the examples of Thomas Lydiat, Galileo, and William Laud.]

    When first the College Rolls receive his Name,
The young Enthusiast quits his Ease for Fame;
Resistless burns the Fever of Renown,
Caught from the strong Contagion of the Gown;
O'er Bodley's Dome his future Labours spread,
And Bacon's Mansion trembles o'er his Head;
Are these thy Views? proceed, illustrious Youth,
And Virtue guard thee to the Throne of Truth,
Yet should thy Soul indulge the gen'rous Heat,
Till captive Science yields her last Retreat;
Should Reason guide thee with her brightest Ray,
And pour on misty Doubts resistless Day;
Should no false Kindness lure to loose Delight,
Nor praise relax, nor Difficulty fright;
Should tempting Novelty thy cell refrain,
And Sloth's bland Opiates shed their Fumes in vain;
Should Beauty blunt on Fops her fatal Dart,
Nor claim the Triumph of a letter'd Heart;
Should no Disease thy torpid Veins invade,
Nor Melancholy's Phantoms haunt thy Shade;
Yet hope not Life from Grief or Danger free,
Nor think the Doom of Man revers'd for thee:
Deign on the passing World to turn thine Eyes,
And pause awhile from Learning to be wise;
There mark what Ills the Scholar's Life assail,
Toil, Envy, Want, the Garret, and the Jail.
See Nations slowly wise, and meanly just,
To buried Merit raise the tardy Bust.
If Dreams yet flatter, once again attend,
Hear Lydiat's Life, and Galileo's End.

    Nor deem, when Learning her lost Prize bestows
The glitt'ring Eminence exempt from Foes;
See when the Vulgar 'scap'd, despis'd or aw'd,
Rebellion's vengeful Talons seize on Laud.
From meaner Minds, tho' smaller Fines content
The plunder'd Palace or sequester'd Rent;
Mark'd out by dangerous Parts he meets the Shock,
And fatal Learning leads him to the Block:
Around his Tomb let Art and Genius weep,
But hear his Death, ye Blockheads, hear and sleep.
      [Fifth theme, lines 175-254:  Military glory is shown to be empty by the examples of Alexander, Marlborough, Charles XII of Sweden, Xerxes, and the Emperor Charles VII.]

    The festal Blazes, the triumphal Show,
The ravish'd Standard, and the captive Foe,
The Senate's Thanks, the Gazette's pompous Tale,
With Force resistless o'er the Brave prevail.
Such Bribes the rapid Greek o'er Asia whirl'd,
For such the steady Romans shook the World;
For such in distant Lands the Britons shine,
And stain with Blood the Danube or the Rhine;
This Pow'r has Praise, that Virtue scarce can warm,
Till Fame supplies the universal Charm.
Yet Reason frowns on War's unequal Game,
Where wasted Nations raise a single Name,
And mortgag'd States their Grandsires Wreaths regret
From Age to Age in everlasting Debt;
Wreaths which at last the dear-bought Right convey
To rust on Medals, or on Stones decay.

    On what Foundation stands the Warrior's Pride?
How just his Hopes let Swedish Charles decide;
A Frame of Adamant, a Soul of Fire,
No Dangers fright him, and no Labours tire;
O'er Love, o'er Force, extends his wide Domain,
Unconquer'd Lord of Pleasure and of Pain;
No Joys to him pacific Scepters yield,
War sounds the Trump, he rushes to the Field;
Behold surrounding Kings their Pow'r combine,
And One capitulate, and One resign;
Peace courts his Hand, but spread her Charms in vain;
"Think Nothing gain'd," he cries, "till nought remain,
On Moscow's Walls till Gothic Standards fly,
And all is Mine beneath the Polar Sky."
The March begins in Military State,
And Nations on his Eye suspended wait;
Stern Famine guards the solitary Coast,
And Winter barricades the Realms of Frost;
He comes, nor Want nor Cold his Course delay; —
Hide, blushing Glory, hide Pultowa's Day:
The vanquish'd Hero leaves his broken Bands,
And shews his Miseries in distant Lands;
Condemn'd a needy Supplicant to wait,
While Ladies interpose, and Slaves debate.
But did not Chance at length her Error mend?
Did no subverted Empire mark his End?
Did rival Monarchs give the fatal Wound?
Or hostile Millions press him to the Ground?
His Fall was destin'd to a barren Strand,
A petty Fortress, and a dubious Hand;
He left the Name, at which the World grew pale,
To point a Moral, or adorn a Tale.

    All Times their Scenes of pompous Woes afford,
From Persia's Tyrant to Bavaria's Lord.
In gay Hostility, and barb'rous Pride,
With half Mankind embattled at his Side,
Great Xerxes comes to seize the certain Prey,
And starves exhausted Regions in his Way;
Attendant Flatt'ry counts his Myriads o'er,
Till counted Myriads sooth his Pride no more;
Fresh Praise is try'd till Madness fires his Mind,
The Waves he lashes, and enchains the Wind;
New Pow'rs are claim'd, new Pow'rs are still bestow'd,
Till rude Resistance lops the spreading God;
The daring Greeks deride the Martial Shew,
And heap their Vallies with the gaudy Foe;
Th'insulted Sea with humbler Thoughts he gains,
A single Skiff to speed his Flight remains;
Th'incumber'd Oar scarce leaves the dreaded Coast
Through purple Billows and a floating Host.

    The bold Bavarian, in a luckless Hour,
Tries the dread Summits of Cesarean Pow'r,
With unexpected Legions bursts away,
And sees defenceless Realms receive his Sway;
Short Sway! fair Austria spreads her mournful Charms,
The Queen, the Beauty, sets the World in Arms;
From Hill to Hill the Beacons rousing Blaze
Spreads wide the Hope of Plunder and of Praise;
The fierce Croatian, and the wild Hussar,
And all the Sons of Ravage croud the War;
The baffled Prince in Honour's flatt'ring Bloom
Of hasty Greatness finds the fatal Doom,
His Foes Derision, and his Subjects Blame,
And steals to Death from Anguish and from Shame.
      [Sixth theme, lines 255-290:  Everyone prays for long life, but old age is a miserable state of sickness and narrow miserliness.]

    Enlarge my Life with Multitude of Days,
In Health, in Sickness, thus the Suppliant prays;
Hides from himself his State, and shuns to know,
That Life protracted is protracted Woe.
Time hovers o'er, impatient to destroy,
And shuts up all the Passages of Joy:
In vain the Gifts the bounteous Seasons pour,
The Fruit Autumnal, and the Vernal Flow'r,
With listless Eyes the Dotard views the Store,
He views, and wonders that they please no more,
Now pall the tastless Meats, and joyless Wines,
And Luxury with Sighs her Slave resigns.
Approach, ye Minstrels, try the soothing Strain,
Diffuse the tuneful Lenitives of Pain:
No Sounds alas would touch th'impervious Ear,
Though dancing Mountains witness'd Orpheus near;
Nor Lute nor Lyre his feeble Pow'rs attend,
Nor sweeter Musick of a virtuous Friend,
But everlasting Dictates croud his Tongue,
Perversely grave, or positively wrong.
The still returning Tale, and ling'ring Jest,
Perplex the fawning Niece and pamper'd Guest,
While growing Hopes scarce awe the gath'ring Sneer,
And scarce a Legacy can bribe to hear;
The watchful Guests still hint the last Offence,
The daughter's Petulance, the Son's Expence,
Improve his heady Rage with treach'rous Skill,
And mould his Passions till they make his Will.

    Unnumber'd Maladies each Joint invade,
Lay Siege to Life and press the dire Blockade;
But unextinguish'd Av'rice still remains,
And dreaded Losses aggravate his Pains;
He turns, with anxious Heart and crippled Hands,
His bonds of Debt, and Mortgages of Lands;
Or views his Coffers with suspicious Eyes,
Unlocks his Gold, and counts it till he dies.
      [Seventh theme, lines 291-318:  The miseries of old age (cont.):  even if you keep your mental powers, you'll get to see your loved ones die; but most of us end decrepit anyway.]

    But grant, the Virtues of a temp'rate Prime
Bless with an Age exempt from Scorn or Crime;
An Age that melts in unperceiv'd Decay,
And glides in modest Innocence away;
Whose peaceful Day Benevolence endears,
Whose Night congratulating Conscience cheers;
The gen'ral Fav'rite as the gen'ral Friend:
Such Age there is, and who could wish its End?

    Yet ev'n on this her Load Misfortune flings,
To press the weary Minutes flagging Wings:
New Sorrow rises as the Day returns,
A Sister sickens, or a Daughter mourns.
Now Kindred Merit fills the sable Bier,
Now lacerated Friendship claims a Tear.
Year chases Year, Decay pursues Decay,
Still drops some Joy from with'ring Life away;
New Forms arise, and diff'rent Views engage,
Superfluous lags the Vet'ran on the Stage,
Till pitying Nature signs the last Release,
And bids afflicted Worth retire to Peace.

    But few there are whom Hours like these await,
Who set unclouded in the Gulphs of Fate.
From Lydia's Monarch should the Search descend,
By Solon caution'd to regard his End,
In Life's last Scene what Prodigies surprise,
Fears of the Brave, and Follies of the Wise?
From Marlb'rough's Eyes the Streams of Dotage flow,
And Swift expires a Driv'ler and a Show.
      [Eighth theme, lines 319-344:  Without virtue, beauty and sexual passion lead to destruction.]

    The teeming Mother, anxious for her Race,
Begs for each Birth the Fortune of a Face:
Yet Vane could tell what Ills from Beauty spring;
And Sedley curs'd the Form that pleas'd a King.
Ye Nymphs of rosy Lips and radiant Eyes,
Whom Pleasure keeps too busy to be wise,
Whom Joys with soft Varieties invite
By Day the Frolick, and the Dance by Night,
Who frown with Vanity, who smile with Art,
And ask the latest Fashion of the Heart,
What Care, what Rules your heedless Charms shall save,
Each Nymph your Rival, and each Youth your Slave?
An envious Breast with certain Mischief glows,
And Slaves, the Maxim tells, are always Foes.
Against your Fame with Fondness Hate combines,
The Rival batters, and the Lover mines.
With distant Voice neglected Virtue calls,
Less heard, and less the faint Remonstrance falls;
Tir'd with Contempt, she quits the slipp'ry Reign,
And Pride and Prudence take her Seat in vain.
In croud at once, where none the Pass defend,
The harmless Freedom, and the private Friend.
The Guardians yield, by Force superior ply'd;
To Int'rest, Prudence; and to Flatt'ry, Pride.
Here Beauty falls betray'd, despis'd, distress'd,
And hissing Infamy proclaims the rest.
      [Ninth theme, lines 345-370:  Seek peace of mind in religious truth and trust to God's wisdom and goodness.]

    Where then shall Hope and Fear their Objects find?
Must dull Suspence corrupt the stagnant Mind?
Must helpless Man, in Ignorance sedate,
Swim darkling down the Current of his Fate?
Must no Dislike alarm, no Wishes rise,
No Cries attempt the Mercies of the Skies?
Enquirer, cease, Petitions yet remain,
Which Heav'n may hear, nor deem Religion vain.
Still raise for Good the supplicating Voice,
But leave to Heav'n the Measure and the Choice.
Safe in his Pow'r, whose Eyes discern afar
The secret Ambush of a specious Pray'r.
Implore his Aid, in his Decisions rest,
Secure whate'er he gives, he gives the best.
Yet with the sense of sacred Presence prest,
When strong Devotion fills thy glowing Breast,
Pour forth thy Fervours for a healthful Mind,
Obedient Passions, and a Will resign'd;
For Love, which scarce collective Man can fill;
For Patience sov'reign o'er transmuted Ill;
For Faith, that panting for a happier Seat,
Thinks Death kind Nature's Signal of Retreat:
These Goods for Man the Laws of Heav'n ordain,
These Goods he grants, who grants the Pow'r to gain;
With these celestial Wisdom calms the Mind,
And makes the Happiness she does not find.